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中国能源环境高峰论坛—海峡西岸峰会生物能源文摘
来源:              加入时间:  2011-02-13                   摄              文
 

室温下高锰酸钾法制备2,5-呋喃二甲酸

陈天明,张军,章伟伟,蒋云飞,曾珊珊,刘娣,谢土君,庄军平*

制浆造纸工程国家重点实验室, 华南理工大学轻工与食品学院 

 

探索了以5-羟甲基糠醛为原料,用高锰酸钾法氧化制备2,5-呋喃二甲酸。以126mg5-羟甲基糠醛(1mmol)为定量,考察了高锰酸钾用量、碱溶液的浓度和反应时间对反应的影响。当高锰酸钾用量为379.2mg2.4mmol),碱溶液的浓度为2.2mol/L,反应时间为10min时,得到2,5-呋喃二甲酸的收率为76.3%。研究结果表明,高锰酸钾法制备2,5-呋喃二甲酸,是一种不用贵金属催化剂,在室温下就可反应的简便方法。本实验用高锰酸钾作氧化剂,反应体系的碱液浓度对高锰酸钾的氧化活性影响较大。本实验对各种碱液浓度条件下高锰酸钾对5-羟甲基糠醛的氧化效果进行了比较。,在碱液浓度1.6—2.2mmol/L浓度范围时高锰酸钾的氧化效果最好。反应时间决定反应进行的程度,当反应时间为10min时较为适宜,反应已进行得较为充分。这是因为当反应时间太短,反应物还停留在中间产物阶段,如2,5-呋喃二甲醛,5-羟甲基-2-糠酸;时间过长,反应物被深度氧化成小分子酸,导致收率下降。

 

关键词:高锰酸钾;5-羟甲基糠醛;2,5-呋喃二甲酸;氧化

 

致谢:国家自然科学基金(50776035, U0733001)、国家科技支撑计划 (2007BAD34B01)

 

Preparation of the furan-2 ,5-dicarboxylic acid by the Potassium

Permanganate Method

 

Tian-Ming Chen, Jun-Ping Zhuang *

State Key Laboratory of Pulp and Paper Engineering, South China University

of Technology 

 

The furan-2, 5-dicarboxylic acid was synthesized with potassium permanganate and 5-hydroxymethyl-furfural. The influence of the reaction conditions, such as the sodium hydroxide concentration of the reaction system, the reactant ratio, the reaction time, upon the yield of furan-2, 5-dicarboxylic acid, was investigated. The result showed that the optimal reaction conditions are in acidic condition when the sodium hydroxide concentration of the reaction system is 2.2mol/L, the reachtant ratio at 2.4:1, and the reaction time 10min. The method for producing furan-2, 5-dicarboxylic acid is provided which can efficiently and quantitatively producing furan-2, 5-dicarboxylic acid under mild conditions, without employing an expensive catalyst and with a reduced energy consumption.

 

Key words: potassium permanganate; 5-hydroxymethylfurfural; furan-2 ,5-dicarboxylic acid; oxidation


生物质制生物柴油

赵宗保

中国科学院大连化学物理研究所生物技术研究部 

大连洁净能源国家实验室生物能源部(筹) 

 

生物柴油是重要的生物燃料其常规生产原料是动植物油脂。然而,油脂资源短缺已成为制约生物柴油产业发展的瓶颈。亟待开拓新型油脂原料,以促进生物柴油及相关产业可持续发展。

我们提出了利用微生物转化碳水化合物为油脂,进而生产生物柴油的技术路线(Fig. 1)。碳水化合物可以是单糖、纤维素水解液、淀粉水解液、菊芋水解液或废甘油等。微生物油脂的脂肪酸组成和植物油相近,以C16C18系脂肪酸,如油酸、棕榈酸和亚油酸为主。目前油脂发酵达到的主要技术参数为:菌体油脂含量65 wt%以上、发酵液干菌体密度100 g/L以上、生产强度0.8 g/(L•h)以上、糖油转化率大于20 wt%,完成了500-L规模的放大试验。建立了有效的碳水化合物原料制备方法和油脂回收技术。以含油菌体或粗微生物油脂为原料,分别利用化学法和脂肪酶催化法制备得到生物柴油,收率大于95%,产品十六烷值高于55

生物质制生物柴油技术具有原材料来源丰富、几乎不额外占用耕地、可连续生产、适合中小规模加工过程的特点。我国生物质资源丰富,农作物秸秆年产量达7亿吨(干重),林业剩余物约3亿多吨,用于生物柴油转化可达到1亿吨。该技术不仅可为生物质能发展提供新路线,促进生物柴油产业可持续发展,还将拉动农林废弃生物质材料利用,保护生态环境,促进社会经济协调发展。

 

关键词:生物柴油;生物质;油脂发酵;产油酵母;生物炼制。

 

Biodiesel Production Based on Lignocellulosic Feedstock

 

Zong–Bao Zhao

Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, CAS, and Dalian National Laboratory of Clean Energy

 

Biodiesel, a mixture of long-chain fatty acid esters, is made from vegetable oil, and is renewable with outstanding combustion profile. However, biodiesel business is repressed due to limited supply of feedstock. Therefore, it is pivotal to develop novel strategy to secure a sustainable production of biodiesel. During the past few years, we have advocated the proposal of Biomass-to-Biodiesel that produces biodiesel using lignocellulosic feedstock. It included three steps, 1) Hydrolysis of lignocellulose to carbohydrates; 2) Lipid production with oleaginous microorganisms; and 3) Transesterification of microbial lipid to biodiesel. We have made significant progresses on this proposal and should discuss with participants during the meeting.


蔗渣半纤维素的糖化及发酵产丙酮

刘浩a,秦薇薇a,陈士成b,柴欣生a,陈元彩a,付时雨a *

a华南理工大学制浆造纸工程国家重点实验室 

b 美国威斯康辛大学土壤科学系,麦迪逊 

 

摘要:甘蔗是我国南方地区重要的经济作物,其副产物蔗渣富含纤维素和半纤维素,是造纸和生物质炼制生产化学品的重要原料。本文研究了蔗渣中半纤维素水解后经微生物发酵产丙酮。首先研究了稀硫酸、亚硫酸盐和酸性亚硫酸盐处理蔗渣后半纤维素的溶出和降解的规律,结果表明酸性亚硫酸盐处理比中性处理溶出的半纤维素多,溶出的半纤维素主要以单糖形式存在,其中木糖约为原料中75%;与稀硫酸预处理相比,亚硫酸盐的处理能阻止单糖进一步降解成糠醛类化合物。另外,从土壤中选育了4种高效发酵戊糖产生丙酮的微生物 (BD 13#, 23#, 24#, 33#),其中 BD 13#33# 在糠醛浓度为500 ppm的环境中可以生长并发酵。在常规培养条件下,这些微生物能在36 h内消化预处理得到的蔗渣半纤维素单糖 (浓度约 1%),主要的产物为丙酮(90%)和乙醇(5%),在发酵中微生物生长、产物形成以及碳水化合物消耗规律进行研究;在厌氧条件下,酸性亚硫酸盐处理得到的半纤维素降解产物在48 h内可以发酵完全。

 

关键词:蔗渣;糖化;半纤维素;发酵;丙酮

 

Acetone Production by Soil Microorganism with Hydrolysates of Hemicelluloses from Bagasse

Hao Liua, Wei-Wei Qin, Shi-Cheng Chenb, Xin-Sheng Chaia, Yuan-Cai Chena, Shiyu Fua *

a State Key Laboratory of Pulp and Paper Engineering, South China University of Technology,  

b Department of Soil Science, Wisconsin University, Madison 

 

Abstract: Bagasse, a by-products from sugarcane, is plentiful in the southern China. Its major components are cellulose and hemicelluloses, which is an excellent source for pulping or biorefinery. The purpose of this paper is to study the hydrolysation of hemicelluloses from bagasse and produce acetone by soil microorganisms. First of all, we compared treatment of bagasse with diluted sulfate acid, neutral sulfite and acidic sulfite. It was found that treatment with acidic sulfite can dissolve more hemicelluloses than that with neutral sulfite. The sugars in the treatment liquor with acidic sulfite are majorly monosaccharides, among which there are 75% of xylose. The treatment with sulfite can also inhibit the formation of furfural, which can produce in sulfate acid treatment. There are 4 soil microorganisms selected from soils, which can produce acetone with above hemicelluloses hydrolysates. Two strains are able to grow well with the hydrolysates containing furfural in 500 ppm. These trains can consume all C5-sugar of the hydrolysates in 36h under normal incubation to produce acetone (95%) and ethanol (5%). Under anaerobic condition, the hydrolysates from acidic sulfite treatment can be used up by these trains for acetone production.

 

Key words: Bagasse; Hydrolysates; Hemicellulose; Fermentation; Acetone.


Isolation and Identification of Lignocellulose Degrading Microbes from Hot Spring and Characterization of Recombinant β-glucosidase and Xylanase

 

Bin Liu a, b*, Bai-Xue Lin b, Liu He b, Ning Zhang b, Zong-Bao Liu, Yifan Huang c, Lian-Hui Xie a, b

a Institute of Bioenergy, b Institute of Plant Virology, c College of Food Science, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University

 

Lignocellulose is the most abundant renewable natural resource and substrate available for conversion to fuels. Anaerobic bacteria had been considered as catalyst for ethanol production from renewable cellulosic substrates. In this study, a cellulose-degrading anaerobic bacterial consortia SV79, which could utilize cellulose as the sole carbon and energy source, was isolated from Great Basin Hot Spring in Nevada. The bacterial consortia SV79 was identified by 16S rRNA clone library, the result indicated there are quite diversity in bacterial population of SV79, including Clostridium, Ruminococcus, and Sporomusa, they are account for 75%, 20% and 5% of SV79 respectively. The products of the cellulose fermentation by SV79 was also analyzed, the ethanol yields were 1.97 g/L for filter paper, 1.19 g/L for CMC, 0.74 g/L for fungi substance scrap and 1.14 g/L for straw by Gas Chromatography Analysis. The filter paper, CMC andβ-glycosidase enzyme activity was 9.125 U, 9.89 U and 7.70 U respectively. The study of SV79 could provided as a guide for construction of manpower bacterial consortia, which would perform a better ethanol-producing ability.

 

Aerobic microbes are also important hosts for degrading lignocellulose. In this study, five thermophilic bacterial and ten fungal cellulose-degrading aerobic strains, and sixteen hemicellulose-degrading aerobic strains were isolated and identified. A recombinant β-glucosidase from hot spring Geobacillus sp. TC-S8 and a recombinant xylanase from thermophilic Geobacillus sp. TC-W7 were characterized.

 

Keywords: Cellulose and hemicellulose degrading, microbe, hot spring, β-glucosidase, Xylanase, recombinant expression

 

Acknowledgements: This work was financially supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (31071639), Bigness science and technology item of Fujian, China (2010N5005), and Key Natural Science Foundation of Fujian, China (2007J0004).


基于Aspen HYSYS沼气分离CO2气体模拟分析

周淑霞a,董玉平a *,张玉林b

a山东大学机械工程学院,高效洁净机械制造教育部重点实验室 

b山东绿能燃气实业有限责任公司

 

提高沼气热值的核心是降低沼气中的CO2气体含量,本文针对沼气中CO2CH4物理性质的差异,利用Aspen HYSYS对低温液化法分离沼气中CO2气体进行模拟分析,先对两种沼气露点与泡点的温度与压力比较,模拟结果说明两种沼气的泡点与露点的温度与压力变化不大。再从热力学角度分析了液化流程中甲烷浓度、温度以及压缩机E2压力对能耗和CO2液化率的影响。结果表明:降低冷却器C2温度,提高压缩机E2压力有利于提高CO2液化率;对流程能耗影响最大是压缩机E2压力,其次是沼气中甲烷的含量;在CO2液化率不变的情况下,采用较低压力的液化流程能耗相对较低。

 

关键词: 沼气;液化流程;热力学分析;Aspen HYSYS

 

致谢: 山东省自然科学基金项目(ZR2009EZ001

 

Hermodynamic Analysis of Separating CO2 from Biomass Based on Aspen HYSYS

 

Shu-Xia Zhou a, Yu-Ping Dong b *, Yu-Lin Zhang b, Hong-Yu Sun a

a Key Laboratory of High Efficiency and Clean Mechanical Manufacture Ministry of Education Shan Dong University

b Shandong Green Energy Gas Industrial Co., Ltd.

 

 

The key point of improving biogas calorific value is to reduce the CO2 concentration. Considering the difference in physical properties between carbon dioxide and methane, the bubble point and dew point of the biogas with different components can be obtained by PR equation. Based on Aspen HYSYS, the liquefaction process of biogas removed CO2 is designed. According to theory of phase equilibrium, how the key parameters (the temperature, methane concentration and compressor pressure) of liquefaction process affect power consumption and the CO2 Liquefaction rate is analyzed from thermodynamic point of view. The results show that reducing temperature of cooler C2, increasing the pressure of the compressor E2 can improve CO2 liquefaction rate. The greatest impact on the process of energy E2 is the compressor pressure, followed by the methane content of biogas; therefore, requires liquid CO2 under the same rate, a lower pressure as far as possible.

Key words: biogas; liqufication process; thermodynamic anlysis; Aspen HYSYS


新型催化剂对6种油脂制备生物柴油的适用性研究

陈俏白斌李聪申烨华*

西北大学化学与材料科学学院 

 

本文研究新型催化剂对6种油脂制备生物柴油的适用性。采用单因素法分别考察催化剂用量、甲醇油用量、反应时间和反应温度等因素对催化剂催化菜籽油、棕榈油和猪油进行酯交换转化率的影响,并且将催化剂应用于豆油、山桃仁油和长柄扁桃油和乙醇。结果表明,在甲醇摩尔比为8:1-14:1、催化剂用量为1-3%、反应温度为50-60℃、反应时间为1-2h的条件下,转化率均可达到98%以上,且催化剂同样适用于豆油、山桃仁油和长柄扁桃油,部分油脂与乙醇反应转化率98%以上,通过红外光谱和气质联用分析酯交换甲酯,主要成分为C16C18的脂肪酸甲酯。

 

关键词:生物柴油; 酯交换反应; 适用性

 

致谢:陕西省“13115”科技创新工程重大科技专项项目(2009ZDKG-69

 

Study on the Applicability of a New Catalyst Transforming Six Oil to Biodiesel

 

Qiao Chen, Bin Bai, Cong Li, Ye-Hua Shen*

Chemistry at Northwestern University, College of ChemistryMaterials Science

 

This paper discusses the applicability of a new catalyst transforming six oil to biodiesel. We investigated the amount of catalyst, methanol, reaction time and reaction temperature by single factor method on Conversion rate of transesterification of rapeseed oil, palm oil and lard. Then the catalyst was used to soybean oil, peach kernel oil mountain and ethanol. The transesterification conditions were optimized as the ratio of the methanol to oil for 8:1-14:1, the catalyst concentration 1-3% , the reaction temperature was 50-60 and the reaction time was 1-2h. The yield of biodiesel could reach over 98%, and the catalyst was also applied to soybean oil wild peach kernel oil and amygdalus pcdunculata Pall oil, some oil reacted with ethanol and the conversion rate could reach 98%, the main components of methyl ester was C16 and C18 fatty acids ester by IR and GC analysis.

Keywords: biodiesel; applicability; transesterification


生物质综合利用——酶解木质素的研究进展

程贤

福州大学材料科学与工程院 

 

全世界能源危机引发替代能源的开发热潮。利用可再生的生物质原料制备生物天然气、生物乙醇方兴未艾。但是由于酶制剂成本等原因,生物能源开发需要进一步加强。木质素是广泛存在于植物体中的一种天然高聚物,是一种非常丰富的可再生资源。随着人类对环境污染和资源危机等问题的认识不断深入,天然高分子所具有的可再生、可降解性等性质日益受到重视。生物能源产业废弃物资源中木质素的综合利用,是当代经济与社会发展的重大课题,也是对当代科技提出的新要求。

酶解木质素是利用的无机碱性水溶液法和有机溶剂-水混合溶剂法工艺从微生物酶解含有纤维素、半纤维素的植物原料制备功能性多糖、生物天然气或能源酒精的残渣中提取得到的天然高聚物。酶解木质素具有纯度高,化学活性强等特点。本文系统介绍酶解木质素的制备,结构和性质等应用基础研究的最新成果,展望酶解木质素的应用前景。

关键词:生物质综合利用;生物天然气;生物乙醇;酶解木质素; 酶解木质素的应用

参考文献:

[1] Singh A., Kumar P. K. R., Sdugerl K. Bioconversion of cellulosic materials to ethanol by filamentous fungi. Adv. Biochem. Eng. Biotechnol., 1992, 25: 283-287.

[2] Kumar P. K. R., Singh A., Sdugerl K. Fed-batch culture for direct conversion of cellulosic substrates to acetic acid/ethanol by Fusarium oxysporum, Proc. Biochem., 1991, 26: 209-216.

 

 Comprehensive Utilization of Biomass---Recent Progress of

Enzymatic Hydrolysis Lignin

Xian-Su Cheng

College of Materials Science and Engineering Fuzhou University 

With the worldwide energy crisis, research and development of energy ethanol or bio-gas, a promising alternative fuel and energy from biomass, has attracted intensive attention all over the world. Since straw and cornstalk contain many polysaccharide components, many researchers around the world have been devoted to transforming these polysaccharide components from straw and cornstalk to ethanol or bio-gas via microbial and enzyme catalysis technology in order to save grain and lower the cost of energy ethanol. Investigations on cost-effective production of energy ethanol or bio-gas by biotechnology companies have been heavily funded by many countries, however, with limited success. One route to reduce the cost is to develop high value-added products from the large amount of straw and cornstalk residue produced during the enzymatic hydrolysis process. In fact, the residue contains component of lignin, which is an abundant, bio-degradable and renewable resource donated generously by the nature. As environment pollution and resource shortage become more and more serious, it has become significant to make better use of the straw and cornstalk residue by systematic investigations into lignin.

Enzymatic hydrolysis lignin (EH lignin) was released from the cornstalks residue of enzymatic hydrolysis by extraction of organic solvent or abstraction using inorganic aqueous alkali. EH lignin is a novel green material. This paper focuses on recent progress of preparation, structure research on EH lignin. Some problems in practical application and the further development of EH lignin were put forward.


生物质基液体燃料的催化合成技术研究

宁文生*, 王小琴,傅剑敏

浙江工业大学化学工程与材料学院 

 

尽管生物质是可再生的资源,但它的年产量是有限的,资源收集上也存在着一些问题,这些都需要在开发生物质基能源时统筹考虑。我们分析了各种生物质基能源的生产方法,决定采取先将生物质气化成合成气(由COH2组成的混合气体)、再通过催化反应将合成气转化为液体燃料。这种方法可以利用各种生物质资源,尤其能够增值利用农林废弃物。我们开展了用于合成气制液体燃料的两条催化反应路线的研究,一条路线的目标产物是烃,即采用铁基、钴基费托合成催化剂进行CO的加氢反应,获得以汽油、柴油为代表的液体燃料;另一条路线的目标产物是低碳混合醇,采用改性铁基费托合成催化剂将合成气转化为C1-C6醇。在研究过程中,及时与有志于可持续的清洁能源生产的企业对接,进行实验室成果的技术转化,完成了铁基费托合成催化剂的工业放大应用,正在启动低碳混合醇中试合成试验。本文将介绍在上述工作中所取得的进展。

 

关键词:生物质;液体燃料;合成气;催化剂

 

致谢:浙江省自然科学基金项目 (Y4100410) 和浙江省科技厅项目 (2009C21002)

 

Studies on Catalysis Technology to Synthesize Liquid Fuels from Biomass

 

Wen-Sheng Ning*, Xiao-Qin Wang, Jian-Min Fu

College of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Zhejiang University of Technology 

 

Biomass is one kind of sustainable source of energy, however, its yearly output is finite and there is no high efficient method to collect them. This makes it necessary to construct carefully a process to convert biomass into fuels. Based on the comparison of various methods to produce biomass fuels, we pay attention to indirect liquefaction of biomass, i.e. to gasify biomass into syngas (mixture of CO and H2) firstly, then to synthesize CO and H2 into liquid fuels by the help of catalysts. The indirect liquefaction can use almost kinds of biomass, especially it can bring values to discard of agriculture and forestry. We study two routes of catalytic conversion of syngas into liquid fuels. One is to produce hydrocarbons with Fe-based and Co-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis catalysts, and the products include gasoline and diesel oil. Another one is to synthesize mixed alcohols ( C1 - C6 alcohols ) with adjusted Fe-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis catalysts. The results attained in laboratory are introduced to company which is interested to new energy production. The industry application of Fe-based Fischer-Tropsch catalyst has been finished and scale-up synthesis experiments of mixed alcohols is being done. The progresses are reported here.


替代石油蓖麻绿色润滑油

尹德川

香港能源服务协会创会及现任主席

 

 

蓖麻是生物质能源的典型代表,是可再生的“绿色石油”,目前的种植技术,每亩地蓖麻可产油300斤左右(在油料作物中是唯一的)。蓖麻油衍生物达300多种以上,它可以生产石油可以生产的化工产品,同时还可生产石油无法生产的产品,如尼龙11

蓖麻是最为理想的润滑材料,是由它独特的分子结构决定的,它高温500摄氏度不燃烧,低温-15摄氏度不凝固。传统上,蓖麻是航空用润滑油的主要原料,南开大学蓖麻工程研究中心将航空润滑油民用化,研发出替代石油的蓖麻基车用发动机油,并已推向市场,且正在陆续推出齿轮油、风力发电用油、轧制油等工业用润滑油。

蓖麻产业是一个涉及农业、工业,对持续增加带动农民收入、缓解“三农”问题具有重大意义,同时低碳环保、符合循环经济的绿色能源产业,发展潜力巨大!

 

关键词:蓖麻;绿色润滑油

 

Petroleum Alternative Castor Lubricant

 

Dominic Yin

Founder and Current Chairman of Hong Kong Association of Energy Service Companies (HAESCO)

 

 

Castor is a typical representative of biomass resources, and is regarded as “green petroleum”. Depended on current planting technology, per mu castor land can produce around 300 catties castor oil (it is unique in oil crops). Castor oil has above three hundred of derivatives; it can produce all the chemical products which make out of petroleum, and also can produce some products which petroleum cannot make, such as nylon11.

Castor is the most ideal lubrication materials because of its unique molecular structure, it does not burn at the high temperature of 500 degrees Celsius, and does not solidify at the low temperature of  - 15 degrees Celsius. Traditionally, castor is the main raw material of aviation lubricants, Nankai University Castor Engineering Research Center(NUCE) has developed aviation lubricant oil and made it more useful in industry. NUCE developes vehicle lubricant based on castor oil to alternate petroleum and markets the new product. NUCE will market gearoil, wind power oil, producing oil and other industrial lubricants in succession.

Castor industry involves agriculture, industry and it is significant to increase farmers' income and alleviate "SAN nong" problems. At the same time, it is a green energy industry according with circular economy, low carbon and environmental protection. and has huge development potential.


木食性白蚁--自然界一个天然的纤维素酶基因资源库

石玉,彭建新,杨 红*

华中师范大学生科院,农药与化学生物学教育部重点实验室 

 

纤维素是地球上最为丰富的生物质资源,也是人类生活中不可或缺的重要工业原料和可再生性能源。白蚁是一类能够高效降解木质纤维素的昆虫,很多种类能以不同形式植物来源的食物如生活的树木、腐木、干草、草食性动物粪便等为食,是自然界纤维素、半纤维素的天然降解者。不同种类白蚁肠道中均栖息着大量的共生微生物,研究表明木食性白蚁肠道中很多共生微生物直接或间接地参与了纤维素的降解。人们从多种白蚁肠道中分离到来源于共生微生物的纤维素酶基因[1],如来源于低等木食性白蚁肠道共生原生动物的糖基水解酶家族5745的纤维素酶(GHF5GHF7GHF45)基因。除了共生微生物来源的纤维素酶,白蚁自身由中肠上皮细胞和唾液腺也能分泌产生内源性纤维素酶,如糖基水解酶家族9GHF9)的纤维素酶。木食性白蚁对纤维素的高效降解即是白蚁自身的内源性纤维素酶和肠道共生微生物的外源性纤维素酶共同作用的结果。美国学者对一种高等木食性白蚁的元基因组研究发现,在该白蚁体内有丰富的细菌来源的纤维素酶基因[2],这些基因属于45个碳氢化合物活性酶,其中很多为纤维素酶和半纤维素酶。这些研究表明,白蚁是自然界中一个天然的纤维素酶基因资源库。如果能开发利用白蚁体内的纤维素酶来高效降解秸秆等废弃植物原料用于乙醇的生产,对促进生物质能源产业的发展具有重大意义。

在国家自然科学基金(3057003430970001)的支持下,我们已经从低等木食性白蚁,黑胸散白蚁体内分离出了15个属于糖基水解酶家族7GHF7)的纤维素酶基因并对其进行了原核表达。此外,利用元基因组技术从一种高等木食性白蚁肠道内发现多种与纤维素降解相关的细菌,如嗜纤维杆菌和螺旋体。这些研究为进一步开发以纤维素为基础的生物质能源转化技术奠定了基础。

 

关键词:木食性白蚁;纤维素酶基因;克隆;表达;元基因组。

 

致谢:国家自然科学基金项目 (3057003430970001)

参考文献:

[1]. Ohkuma M. Termite symbiotic system: efficient bio-recycling of lignocellulose. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol., 2003, 61: 1-9.

[2] Warnecke F, Luginbuehl P, Ivanova, N, et al. Metagenomic and functional analysis of hindgut microbiota of a wood-feeding higher termite. Nature 2007, 450: 560-565.

 

Wood-feeding termites, a natural reservoir of cellulase genes

 

Yu Shi, Jian-Xin Peng, Hong Yang*

College of Life Sciences, Central China Normal University; Key Laboratory of Pesticide & Chemical Biology, Ministry of Education

 

基于微生物燃料电池的生物传感器监测和诊断厌氧发酵生产生物燃气过程

刘志丹a, b, c,刘京a,张松平b,邢新会c,苏志国b

a瑞典隆德大学生物技术系 

b中国科学院过程工程研究所 

c清华大学化学工程系

 

能源危机和环境污染是当今社会发展的两个主要问题。发展和寻求新能源和废物处理技术越来越重要,厌氧发酵技术同时进行有机废物处理和生产能源气体可以为处理两个问题提供一种有效的解决途径。然而,厌氧发酵的显著特点是对外部环境变化变现脆弱,为了使发酵过程高效和稳定,可靠的在线监控技术非常需要,这也是发酵过程经常忽略的问题和瓶颈之一。

微生物燃料电池(MFC)是一种新型的生物技术,通过微生物催化作用把有机物的化学能直接转化为电能。由于其独特的转化机制,MFC引起了极大的研究关注和在能源,环境领域具有潜在的应用价值。基于MFC的生物传感器就其中之一。基于电活性生物膜为识别元素的MFC型生物传感器具有长期工作稳定性等优势,有希望改进后用于在线生物过程监控。本文报道一种夹套式MFC型生物传感器,并将其用于厌氧发酵过程实时在线监测。众所周知,厌氧系统运行出现紊乱,干扰等问题时,微生物的代谢状态会发生改变。MFC型生物传感器通过监测VFAs等发酵中间代谢物从而实时反映厌氧系统的动态变化。结合常规的气相和液相监测手段(气体流量计,pH计等)组成的综合过程监测系统能够可以有效监测和诊断厌氧发酵过程,并为厌氧发酵生产生物燃气的过程控制和高效运行提供新的控制策略和信息支持。

 

关键词:厌氧发酵;生物能源;微生物燃料电池;生物传感器。

 

致谢:本研究得到了中瑞国际合作项目SIDA和瑞典政府SI No. 05391/2006)的支持和资助。另外,还得到了中国科技部973计划 (No. 2009CB724702, No. 2011CB707404)的支持。

 

Monitoring of the Anaerobic Fermentation Process Using Microbial fuel cells based biosensor

 

 Zhidan Liu a, b, c Jing Liu a, Song-Ping Zhangb, Xin-Hui Xingc, Zhi-Guo Sub

a Dept. of Biotechnology, Lund University 

b NKLBE, Institute of Process Engineering, CAS 

c Dept of Chemical Engineering, Tsinghua University 

 


环境友好固体酸催化碳水化合物制备乙酰丙酸甲酯

彭林才,张俊华,张蓓笑,龚艳,施建斌,杨秋林,庞春生,庄军平

制浆造纸工程国家重点实验室,华南理工大学轻工与食品学院 

 

乙酰丙酯甲酯属于短链脂肪酯,性质与生物柴油极为相似,可作为汽油燃料、柴油燃料和生物燃料的添加剂。在酸性催化剂作用下,它可以由己糖碳水化合物在甲醇溶剂中直接加热获得。该转化途径的优点是产物容易通过蒸馏分离,未反应的甲醇可回收再利用,基本上可实现零废水排放,符合绿色化工发展的宗旨。目前存在的主要问题是使用无机液体酸作为催化剂导致设备腐蚀严重,而且产物得率不高。因此,本研究的目的是寻找一类活性高、选择性好、可长期重复使用的环境友好固体酸用于催化制备生物质基化学品乙酰丙酸甲酯。在试验的众多不同类型固体酸催化剂中,硫酸化的金属氧化物,尤其是硫酸化的氧化钛发现具有明显高的活性和产物选择性。在反应温度200℃下,分别以蔗糖、葡萄糖和果糖作为反应底物原料,获得的乙酰丙酸甲酯摩尔得率依次约为43%、33%和59%。气相质谱(GC-MS)和液相质谱(LC-MS)分析表明,液相产物产要包括甲基葡萄糖苷、5-甲氧基甲基-2-呋喃甲醛、乙酰丙酸甲酯、甲酸甲酯和二甲醚。反应后,固体酸催化剂是容易通过过滤回收,高温焙烧后重复使用多次,能保持较好的催化活性和稳定性。总之,本研究提供了一条新的和环境友好的方式转化丰富廉价的碳水化合物生物质成液态燃料。

关键词:碳水化合物;乙酰丙酸甲酯;固体酸;催化

致谢:国家自然科学基金(50776035, U0733001),教育部博士点基金(20070561038)863计划(2007AA05Z408),国家科技支撑计划 (2007BAD34B01) 973计划(2010CB732201)资助项目

 

Conversion of Carbohydrates Biomass into Methyl levulinate by Environmentally Friendly Solid Acid

Lin-Cai Peng, Lu Lin*

State Key Laboratory of Pulp and Paper Engineering, South China University of Technology,  

 

Methyl levulinate is a kind of short chain fatty ester with property extremely similar to the biodiesel, can be used as fuel additive. In the presence of acid catalyst, it can be produced from hexose carbohydrates in methanol solvent by heat. An advantage of the reaction in methanol is that wastewater is minimized and products are purified easily by distillation. The excess methanol solvent is reused in the succeeding runs. The low yield of product and the serious equipment corrosion for using inorganic liquid acid catalysts are two main problems existing in the reaction process, and the objective of this study was to develop or find environmentally friendly solid acid catalysts with high activity, selectivity and long-term stability for the production of methyl levulinate from carbohydrates biomass. Among many different kinds of solid acid we tested, sulfated metal oxides, especially sulfated titanium dioxide, exhibited high activity and remarkably high selectivity for methyl levulinate. With sucrose, glucose and fructose as the substrate, respectively, methyl levulinate was obtained in ca. 43 mol%, 33 mol% and 59 mol% yield at 200 oC for 2 h. GC-MS and LC-MS analysis showed that typical liquid products were methyl glucoside, 5-methoxymethylfurfural, methyl levulinate, methyl formate and dimethyl ether. The solid catalyst can be easily recovered by filtration and exhibited high activity after calcination in the multiple times use. In conclusion, our study provided a new and environmentally benign opportunity for transformation of abundant and inexpensive carbohydrates biomass into liquid fuels.


新型催化剂制备生物柴油的动力学研究

李国平a, b,白斌a,陈俏a,李聪a,申烨华a*

a西北大学化学与材料科学学院 

b西安建筑科技大学冶金工程学院

 

工业生产中常采用酯交换反应制备生物柴油,其中使用强碱作为催化剂,在生产中存在着皂化现象严重、催化剂不易储存、并对设备有强腐蚀性等缺点。本研究组开发的新型生物柴油催化剂 SXL 较好地解决了上述问题。以精制菜籽油和甲醇为原料,考察新型催化剂SXL作用下的酯交换反应动力学,在4060范围内,反应速率随反应温度升高而增大;催化剂用量在2.2%时反应速率较快,产率较高;醇油为16:1时,在较短时间内可达到较高产率;通过假设求证得到催化剂SXL作用下的酯交换反应整个过程是从二级反应向零级反应转变,反应的平均活化能为35.33kJ/mol,频率因子k04.73×105L/(mol·min)

 

关键词:新型催化剂;动力学;酯交换反应

 

致谢:陕西省“13115”科技创新工程重大科技专项项目(2009ZDKG-69

 

Kinetics of Preparation for Biodiesel on New Catalyst

 

LI Guo-pinga, b, BAI Bina, CHEN Qiaoa, LI Conga, SHEN Ye-huaa*

a Chemistry at Northwestern University,College of ChemistryMaterials Science,Xi'an,China

b School of Metallurgical Engineering, Xi'AN University of Architecture and Technology 

 

 

The traditional way to product biodiesel is transesterification production usually, using alkali as the catalyst. But there are many shortcoming of the traditional way, such as serious saponification reaction, depositing of the catalyst is difficult, alkali will erode the product equipment. The new catalyst SXL had excellent capability which solved the above problems. The kinetics of transesterification catalysed by catalyst SXL was investigated by using the refined rapeseed oil and methanol as raw materials. In the range of 4060℃, reaction rate increased; when the amount of catalyst was 2.2% , the reaction had a result with faster rate and higher yield; when alcohol-oil ratio was 16:1, higher production rate could be reached in a relatively short time. The transesterification under the role of SXL was a transformation process from second-order to zero-order, and the average activation energy of reaction was 35.33kJ/mol, frequency factor k0 was 4.73 × 105L/(mol·min).

Keywords: new catalyst; kinetics; transesterification

 


Production of Renewable Hydrocarbon Fuels—Thermochemical Behavior of Fatty Acid Salts during Microwave-assisted Pyrolysis Decarboxylization

 

Yun-Pu Wang a, b, Yu-Huan Liu a, b *, Rong-Sheng Ruan a, b, Yi-Qin Wang a, Jin-Sheng Zhang a, Hong Peng a

1. The Engineering Research Center for Biomass Conversion, MOE, Nanchang University,  

2. The State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Nanchang University,

 

Biofuels have recently become more attractive because of their environmental benefits and the uncertainties concerning petroleum availability. Among the different possible raw materials extractives-based triglycerides in plants and animals present a promising source for producing conventional diesel-type fuels. To develop an advanced pyrolysis process for various renewable hydrocarbon fuels and improve product quality and yield, in-depth investigations into the reaction mechanisms are needed. In present investigation,firstly the lye reacts with the waste of animal fat or vegetable fats and oils to form soaps with significant molecular polarity, then by using microwave heating technology, which may preferentially activate the polar partial of the soap molecular, leading to the high selectivity of decarboxylization, result in a homologous series of alkenes, alkanes and aromatics formation. The shortcoming of traditional pyrolyzing was resolved, including large temperature gradient, slow heating rate, lack of the necessary selectivity of fatty acids decarboxylation. Adding various types of catalyst(CaCO3, FeCl3, clay, et al) to simulate geological conditions of hydrocarbon. Of the parameters studied-power (500-900), time (5 min and 10 min). The results indicated that in the case of sodium salts of fatty acids, a homologous series of alkenes, alkanes and aromatics was formed, The yield of the liquid product was 80%, under the optimum conditions, the cracking oil characterized by GC-MS shows the formation similar with fuel oil, its dynamic viscosity and density is 2.45 mm2/s and 0.84g/cm3, respectively. In addition, glycerin produced during saponification and purification is easier to be purified.

 

Acknowledgement: Thanks to the Jiangxi Natural Science Foundation Suport Project 2008GZH0047 and Jiangxi Agricultural Industrialization Project 2007BN12100

 


低品位生物质生产气体生物燃料技术的现状与挑战

邢新会*,张 ,卢元,赵洪新,来奇恒,吕奉祥,刘志丹

清华大学化学工程系

 

生物质能储量丰富,是重要的替代能源。由于我国粮食安全问题,非粮化战略为生物质能发展提出严峻挑战。开发纤维素、低品位生物质等资源的高效转化及加工技术,成为目前国内外生物质能研究的重中之重。以纤维素乙醇为代表的第二代生物燃料呼之欲出。与此同时,由于低品位生物质储量丰富、分布广,是不容忽视的、重要的非粮生物质资源。然而,传统的化学工业技术对分散、低品位、量大的生物质碳资源的加工和利用显得困难重重。因此,研究建立面向代谢网络及微生物种群设计与优化的合成生物工程方法平台,通过生物加工路线的合理设计及优化实现生物质资源替代,特别是低品位生物质碳资源高效利用具有重要意义。

氢气是理想的清洁能源载体,在所有燃料中氢气有最高的原料灵活性和环境友好性。油井到车轮分析表明生物甲烷是最有能效的燃料之一,生物甲烷燃料汽车能行驶生物柴油三倍的距离,也比燃料乙醇长50%。我国在生物甲烷的应用方面处于世界前列。此外,相对于生物乙醇等传统液体生物燃料的生产,甲烷和氢气的联产发酵生产能从低品位生物质中回收更多的能量。由于暗发酵产氢本身产气速度快,能够实现工业级别的生产,如能提高整体能量回收率和过程效率的话,气体生物燃料是极具潜力的生物能源生产方式。以甲烷和氢气等气体生物燃料形式回收低品位生物质能量技术是特别适合我国国情的能源生产的关键途径之一。

生产以甲烷和氢气为代表的气体生物燃料的理论能量回收率为99%,但在实际的生物过程中,以自然菌群降解秸秆等低品位生物质获取能量收率仅能达到20%左右。这是由于自然微生物混合群落难以控制,降解秸秆等纤维素效率低,自然菌群中产氢菌群的结构不理想、控制难度大,导致产氢速率和得率不高。而产氢过程强化是提高气体生物燃料生产过程效率的关键步骤。因此,在设计和优化代谢网络的基础上,建立稳定高效的能增强生物质水解和氢气生产的微生物群落是实现气体生物燃料高效生产的关键技术。采用微生物种群的合成生物工程,通过纤维素降解菌、产氢菌和甲烷产生菌的高效耦合,强化从纤维素到氢气和甲烷的合成路径,能够大幅提高整体能量回收率。本研究小组通过微生物菌群的设计,从秸秆生产氢气和甲烷的能量回收率提高到了50%以上。此外,本小组还系统研究了产氢菌代谢网络调控及重构代谢途径方法,阐明了相关的影响因素,为低品位生物质生产生物燃料提供了方法基础。

 

关键词:气体生物燃料,合成生物工程,可再生生物质,微生物种群

 

致谢:本研究得到了科技部973计划 (No. 2009CB724702, No. 2011CB707404)和国家自然科学基金项目(No. 20806046)的支持.

 

Gas Biofuels Production Technology from Low Grade Biomass: Current States and Challenges

 

Xin-Hui Xing*, Chong Zhang, Yuan Lu, Hong-Xin Zhao, Qi-Heng Lai, Feng-Xiang Lv, Zhi-Dan Liu

Department of Chemical Engineering, Tsinghua University


生物质基糠醛制备呋喃类液体燃料的调控机制研究

张俊华a,彭林材a,陈天明a,林鹿a, b*

a华南理工大学制浆造纸国家重点实验室

b厦门大学能源研究院

 

呋喃类化合物包括2-甲基呋喃、2,5-二甲基呋喃、2-甲基四氢呋喃和2,5-二甲基四氢呋喃是一类高品质的液体能源化合物属于新一代生物质基液体燃料国内外尚没有从生物质糖(葡萄糖和木糖的混合糖)转化呋喃类化合物Conversion of bio-based sugars from lignocellulose to furan compounds, CSLF的完整反应链的研究报道。本研究是在前期研究工作的基础上,提出了木质生物质基单糖(葡萄糖和木糖的混合糖)转化呋喃类化合物的反应途径,并主要研究了CSLF反应途中的过渡产物(糠醛及5-羟甲基糠醛的混合物)加氢催化过程中的反应温度、反应时间、氢气用量、催化剂用量、搅拌转速、底物浓度、底物中糠醛质量含量及催化剂回收等关键调控因素对该转化路线调控机制的影响,为木质生物质规模化转化高品质生物质基燃料提供理论依据和技术基础。

关键词:生物质;糠醛;呋喃;液体燃料

 

Regulation Mechanism Research for the Preparation of Furans Liquid Fuels from Bio-based Furfurals

 

Jun-Hua Zhang a, Lin-Cai Peng a, Tian-Ming Chen a, Lu Lin a, b*

a State Key Laboratory of Pulp and Paper Engineering, South China University of Technology, b School of Energy research, Xiamen University

 

Furan compounds including 2-methyl furan, 2,5-dimethyl furan, 2-methyltetrahydrofuran and 2,5-dimethyoxytetrahydrofuran, which is a high-quality liquid energy compound and can be used as a new generation of bio-based liquid fuel. However, there were not any studied have been reported on the complete conversion chain of bio-based sugars from lignocellulose to furan compounds (CSLF). This study presents the reaction pathway from the bio-based sugars (the mixture sugar of glucose and xylose) to furan compounds based on our preliminary studies, and the main regulation factors of hydrogenation from the transition products of CSLF (the mixture of furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural) to furan compounds, such as reaction temperature, reaction time, hydrogen dosage, catalyst dosage, stirring speed, substrate concentration, furfural mass content and catalyst recycling are mainly studied, which can be as the theoretical foundation and technical basis for the large-scale conversion of woody biomass to high-quality bio-based fuels.

Key words: biomass; furfural; furan; liquid fuel


Cr2O3-TiO2-氢酶复合体利用可见光光解水产氢

邬小兵,倪恒旺,刘健,龙敏南

厦门大学生命科学学院,厦门大学能源研究院

 

本文研究了Cr2O3-TiO2-氢酶复合体在可见光下光解水产氢。以钛酸四丁酯和重铬酸铵为原料,采用溶胶凝胶法制备了Cr2O3-TiO2,利用浸渍吸附法将产酸克雷伯氏菌氢酶与Cr2O3-TiO2偶联。研究了温度、pH值及离子浓度等条件对Cr2O3-TiO2吸附氢酶的影响。结果表明Cr2O3-TiO2270 nm440nm600nm附近有明显的吸收峰。Cr2O3-TiO2吸附氢酶的最佳条件为:温度37℃,pH 7.0[Ca2+]=1.6mM,在该条件下氢酶的吸附率达到80%以上。在白炽灯光源及3000lux光照度条件下,Cr2O3-TiO2-氢酶利用可见光光解水产氢速率为3.05 μmolH2. min-1.g-1 ,Cr2O3-TiO2催化光解水产氢速率提高3.12倍。在反应体系中加入1.5 mM甲基紫晶(methyl viologenMV)可显著提高Cr2O3-TiO2-氢酶光解水产氢速率,可达163.23μmolH2.min-1.g-1。在相同条件下,P25TiO2TiO2-氢酶仅有微量的氢产生。本试验结果表明利用Cr2O3-TiO2能在可见光下光解水产氢,氢酶与Cr2O3-TiO2偶联可显著提高可见光光解水产氢活性。

 

关键词:光解;产氢;二氧化钛;氢酶;可见光

 

致谢:国家自然科学基金项目 (30870051), 福建省“小发明小创造项目”((2009)111)

 

Hydrogen Production by Photolysis of Water using Cr2O3-TiO2-hydrogenase Complex under Visible Light

Xiao-Bing Wu, Heng-Wang Ni, Jian Liu, Min-Nan Long

School of Life Sciences, School of Energy Research, Xiamen University

 

The hydrogen production by photolysis of water using Cr2O3-TiO2-hydrogenase complex was studied in this research. The complexCr2O3-TiO2showed absorption peaks in the visible light region (440 nm, 600 nm) and UV light region (270 nm). The hydrogenase from Klebsiellaoxytoca was absorbed and coupled with Cr2O3-TiO2. The optimal absorb condition was obtained as: temperature 37 , pH 7.0 and [Ca2 +] = 1.6Mm. Under 3000 lux light, the hydrogen production rate from water catalyzed by Cr2O3-TiO2-hydrogenase complex was achieved as 3.05 μmol H2.min-1.g-1. When using methyl viologen (MV, 1.5 mM) as electron carrier, the hydrogen production rate increased to 163.23 μmol H2.min-1. g-1. Under the same conditions, only trace amount of hydrogen were measured when using both P25 TiO2 and TiO2-hydrogenase complex as catalysts. The results suggest that Cr2O3-TiO2-hydrogenase complex is a preferable catalyst for photolysis hydrogen production.

 

Key words: Hydrogen productionPhotolysis of waterTiO2HydrogenaseVisible light

 


纤维素生物质转化制燃料酒精

鲍思龙b,林聪玉b谢志b,刘伟琳b,张树河a,刘健a,龙敏南a

a厦门大学能源研究院,厦门大学生命科学学院

b漳州伯能生物能源有限公司

 

纤维素生物质是一类丰富的可再生资源,利用纤维素生物质制取液体生物燃料可替代石油等化石燃料。以甘蔗渣等农林纤维素生物质为原料,经预处理和碱分级分离后,获得纤维素、半纤维素和木质素组份,蔗渣粗纤维素提取率为50%,粗半纤维素为17.4%。以灰绿曲霉(Aspergillus glaucus) EU7-22为产纤维素酶菌株,通过固态发酵制备纤维素酶并对蔗渣粗纤维素组份进行酶解,还原糖得率大于45%。酶解液经浓缩至还原糖浓度15%以上,并添加氮源和其它无机盐,接种10%(V/V) 酒精酵母发酵50小时以上,蔗渣制酒精得率为9.4%(w/w)。以内切木聚糖酶对半纤维素进行酶切,可获得木糖和低聚木糖等产品,蔗渣转化为木糖、低聚木糖的得率为8.6%(w/w)

 

关键词:甘蔗渣;灰绿曲霉;纤维素酶;燃料酒精

 

致谢:国际科技合作重点项目(2009DFA6930);福建省企业技术创新重点项目(2009-285

 

Bioconversion of Cellulosic Biomass into Fuel Ethanol

Si-Long Bao b, Cong-Yu Lin b, Zhi-Jun Xie b, Wei-Lin Liu b, Shu-Hhe Zhanga, Jian Liua, Min-Nan Longa

aSchool of Energy Research, School of Life Sciences, Xiamen University 

bZhangzhou Broany Bioenergy Co. Ltd.

 

Cellulosic biomass is the most abundant renewable resources which could be transformed into liquid fuel by various pathways. The bagasse was separated into cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin after it was pretreated with NaOH. The yield of cellulose and hemicellulose were obtained as 50% and 17.4%, respectively. Aspergillus glaucus EU7-22 was used for producing cellulase by solid state fermentation. The saccharification yield of crude bagasse cellulose was achieved as 45% (w/w). The enzymolysis fluid was condensed to 15% (w/v), and added with nitrogen resources and salts. After 50 h fermentation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the ethanol yield from bagasse was obtained as 9.4% (w/w).

 

Key words: Bagasse; Aspergillus glaucus;cellulase; fuel ethanol


烟杆生物质热解综合利用

任德安a,甘礼惠a,鲍思龙b,刘健a,龙敏南a

a厦门大学能源研究院,厦门大学生命科学学院 

b漳州伯能生物能源有限公司

 

烟杆生物质是烟草加工业的主要废弃物,对烟杆生物质进行综合利用,不仅可以降低烟杆对环境的污染,还可增加烟草产业的经济效益。以烟杆生物质为原料,在固定床上采用间歇吹气工艺进行热解(500),可获得生物油45%(w/w),焦炭40%(w/w),气体15%(w/w)GC-MS分析表明,生物油中包含20多种含氧化合物,主要有乙酸、羟基丙酮、烟碱、羟基乙醛等,其中乙酸含量为21.84%,羟基丙酮含量为6.15%,烟碱的含量为3.89%。热解气主要成分为CO2CO,少量的H2CH4以及C2-C4的烯烃。烟杆生物油中可提取多种化合物;烟杆生物油经过改性提质后可制取生物液体燃料;结合木炭等副产品的利用,可实现烟杆生物质的资源化利用。

 

关键词:烟杆;热解;生物油;生物基化学品

 

致谢:福建省企业技术创新重点项目(2009-285)

 

Comprehensive Utilization of Tobacco Stems Biomass by Pyrolysis

 

Der-An Rena, Li-Hui Gana, Si-long Baob, Jian Liua, Min-Nan Longa

aSchool of Energy Research, School of Life Sciences, Xiamen University

bZhangzhou Broany Bioenergy Co. Ltd.

 

Tobacco stem biomass is the main waste of tobacco industry. Comprehensive utilization of tobacco stems would decrease the environment pollution and increase the benefit of tobacco industry. The tobacco stem biomass was pyrolysed in a fixed-bed reactor with interval air-flush under 500 . The end product consists of 45% (w/w) bio-oil, 40% bio-char (w/w) and 15% gas (w/w). GC-MS analysis showed that more than 20 kinds of oxygenic chemicals existed in the bio-oil. The main chemicals included acetic acid, hydroxyl acetone and nicotine, with contents of 21.4%, 6.15% and 3.89%, respectively. The gases mainly consist of CO2, CO, H2, CH4 and alkene (C2-C4). The bio-oil could be used for separating various chemicals or for fuel after further upgrading.

 

Key wordstobacco stem; pyrolysis; bio-oil, bio-chemicals


日本纤维素乙醇工业的规划与启示

刘健a, b[1],邬小兵c,龙敏南b

a能源研究院,厦门大学  

b 日本京都大学生存圈研究所

c生命科学学院,厦门大学

 

日本将纤维素乙醇纳入国家能源发展的重要产业之一,在举国体制下,政府、学界和产业界全力推进其技术研发和成果产业化进程。尽管自然条件先天不足,日本凭借其在尖端技术研发和资金投入等方面的实力, 迅速提高了其在纤维素乙醇领域研发水平,大幅度降低了生产成本。本文介绍了日本纤维素乙醇工业发展规划,概述了相关技术的未来发展方向和特点,分析了其决策科学、节能为先、立足国情等特点,为构建符合中国国情的纤维素乙醇工业规划提供了借鉴。

 

关键词: 生物能,日本,纤维素,乙醇,节能

 

Programming and Revelation on the Industry of Cellulosic Ethanol in Japan

 

Jian Liu a, b, Min-Nan Long a

a Energy school, Xianmen University

b Laboratory of Biomass Conversion, Research Institute for Sustainable Humanosphere, Kyoto University

c School of Life Sciences, Xiamen University

 

The industry of cellulosic ethanol has become one of the most important projects of national energy development in Japan. Under supports by the whole nation, the government, academia and industry make efforts to promote its R & D and industrialization process. Despite the inherent disadvantageous natural conditions, Japan, with its cutting-edge technology in the R & D and capital investment, rapidly improved in the field of cellulosic ethanol, with a significant reduction in the cost of production. This article describes the plan of cellulosic ethanol industry in Japan, outlined the future development of related technologies and features of its decision sciences, energy saving first, and based on national conditions and characteristics, in line with China's national conditions for building a cellulose ethanol industry plans to provide a reference.

 

Keywords: Bioenergy, Japan; Cellulose, Ethanol, Energy saving

 


生物质气化技术关键问题及发展前景分析

常杰*

华南理工大学化学与化工学院

 

生物质气化是通过热化学反应将生物质转化为可燃气体,进而制备燃料或发电的技术,其研究、开发及应用在国内外受到了广泛的关注。本文分析了生物质气化产业化应用中存在的关键技术问题,即焦油的高效脱除及加压气化技术与设备,指出我国生物质资源丰富,每年产生10亿多吨的生物质废弃物,发展生物质燃料生产和发电有巨大的潜力,应根据不同区域生物质资源的特点,因地制宜地建立合理规模的生物质气化系统,促进生物质气化产业的可持续发展。

 

关键词:生物质;气化;发电;关键问题。

 

致谢:973计划 (2010CB732205)

Key Issues and Prospect Analysis of Biomass Gasification

Jie Chang*

School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, South China University of Technology

 

Biomass gasification is one of bioenergy technologies, which can convert biomass into fuel and power via thermochemical reactions, and its research, development and application have attracted great attentions in the world. The author analyzes key technical issues existing in the commercialization of biomass gasification technology in this paper. The issues are high efficient removal of biomass tar, and pressurized gasification technology and reactor. About 1 billion ton of biomass wastes are produced annually in China. It will be a great potential to develop biomass gasification technology. It is necessary to establish rational-scaled biomass gasification system suitable to local situations according to the features of biomass resources at different regions.

 

 

 



作者简介:刘健,男,博士,高级工程师,研究领域为生物质能源,0592-2185278Email: jianliu@xmu.edu.cn

 



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